Wednesday, 31 July 2019


Sophytes is described in Classical sources as a ruler in the Punjab region who submitted to Alexander and was, thereby, permitted to retain his realms. 

He gave Alexander hunting dogs as a gift. Scholars, including Sylvain Lévi, have suggested, based on Panini, that the name Sophytes may be equated with the name Saubhuti, but there is no conclusive proof of this. It is not clear whether this king Sophytes is the same as the individual named Sophytes on coins discovered in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, or whether he was a later dynast based in Bactria.

Sophytes has been subject to a great deal of speculation, with Indian origin on one end of the spectrum and Greek on the other. Cunningham identifies him with the Indian King Fobnath of "Sangala," (a name some read as "Saka-town") while A.C.L. 

Carlleyle connects him with the same king's son Suveg, which is more likely in light of the identification of Fobnath as a royal title rather than a name; potentially making him a Madra of Saka/Iranian origin. Cunningham believes the Sobii and Kathaei to have been his subjects, whom he asserts were Turanians, making them of the same stock as the Saka or Indo-Scythians. It is interesting to note that Sagala was the capital of the later Indo-Greek dynasty of Menander I for several generations, and that Menander himself struck several coins with a similar reverse, suggesting that his dynasty inherited the older king's mints when he took the city for himself.

EDITED FROM: Wikipedia

Sunday, 28 July 2019


In the Greek Religion,Boreas (Βορέας) is the God of the cold Northern wind and the Bringer of winter. He is depicted as being very strong, with a violent temper to match. Pausanias wrote that Boreas has snakes instead of feet, though in art He was usually depicted with winged human feet.
This Wind God is closely associated with horses. He is said to have fathered twelve colts after taking the form of a stallion, and mated with the mares of Erichthonius, king of Dardania. These were able to run across a field of grain without trampling the plants. The ancient Greeks believed that his home is in Thrace, also, Herodotus and Pliny both describe a northern land known as Hyperborea, where people lived in complete happiness and had extraordinarily long lifespans. Boreas is said to be the father of three giant Hyperborean priests of Apollo by Chione.

Boreas also kidnapped Orithyia, an Athenian princess, from the Ilisos. He was in love with her and had initially pleaded for her favours. When this failed, He reverted to his usual temper and abducted her. Boreas wrapped Orithyia up in a cloud, married her, and with her, Boreas fathered two sons—the Boreads, Zethes and Calais—and two daughters—Chione, Goddess of snow, and Cleopatra.

From then on, the Athenians saw Boreas as a relative by marriage. When Athens was threatened by Xerxes, the people prayed to Boreas, who was said to have then caused winds to sink 400 Persian ships. A similar event had occurred twelve years earlier, and Herodotus writes:
'Now I cannot say if this was really why the Persians were caught at anchor by the stormwind, but the Athenians are quite positive that, just as Boreas helped them before, so Boreas was responsible for what happened on this occasion also. And when they went home they built the god a shrine by the River Ilissus.'

Boreas in Grecobuddhism
Greco-Buddhist fragment of the God Boreas with billowing cloak overhead. Hadda, Afghanistan

A number of Greek Gods and Goddesses formed part of Greco-Buddhism,and most of them are considered to be protectors of the Buddha.Among Zeus, Tyche, Athena, Heracles and Nike, Boreas also stands by the side of the Buddha, protecting him with His fierce power as a Wind God. 

EDITED FROM: Wikipedia

Saturday, 27 July 2019


The influence of the Greek culture and Religion in Buddhism has been evident throughout History. Among the other Greek Gods and Goddesses that became known in Asia, Dionysos, the Great God of ecstasy, stands out as he inspired many Buddhist artists of Central Asia and Gandhara. In this article, we bring Greek and Buddhist depictions side by side, as indication of the obvious influence of Dionysos, not only in art, but also in the lifestyle of that era.

 He is the God who taught Indians how to cultivate vine- and He is often shown on Buddhist reliefs with Ariadne drinking wine prepared by his companions,such as Sileni, Satyrs and Pan. Festivals and celebrations, in which wine is the main protagonist,are influenced by the Dionysian Mysteries and rites. 

Wine brings ecstasy, which is the primary property of Dionysos. There are many Buddhist depictions which demonstrate the purely Greek spirit of such festivities in Asia.

In an upcoming article, we shall discuss the influence of the Dionysian theatre on Buddhism.


Alexander the Great invaded India in 326 BCE, at the end of his brilliant campaign to 'conquer the known world' as he swept through Greece, the Mediterranean world, Syria, Egypt, Persia and Central Asia, dislodging a number of native dynasties and replacing them with his Greek lieutenants. India was the last stop for this voracious conqueror, whose armies were trained to annihilate any resistance to their advances. Alexander invaded India through the frontier kingdom of Takshashila whose ruler Oomphis (Ambhi) discreetly surrendered to Alexander to avoid the destruction of his kingdom. Alexander then, went on to fight the last major battle of his life against King Porus or Puru, at the Battle of Hydaspes (Greek name for Jhelum river).

This brief contact with the Greeks under Alexander has been written off by noted Indian historians as of little consequence to Indian history as it was not even mentioned in Indian sources. However, for the Greeks, it heralded a number of important changes, especially in their perception of India, which earlier depended only on the conquests of Heracles and the Greek God Dionysos, who both reached India. Alexander's brief encounter brought further information about the existence of a number of  tribes at the entrance of the Indian sub-continent. Though not recorded in Indian sources, the Battle of Hydaspes' accounts were written by no fewer than 16 of Alexander's companions, who,among other things, narrate the use of elephants as war machines equivalent to today's battle tanks. The Greek interest in elephants continued with later rulers, as Alexander's successor in his eastern territories, Seleucus Nikator sought 500 war elephants from Chandragupta Maurya to fight his western opponents.

Alexander's invasion also opened up the importance of India's ancient border, the Khyber Pass in Kabul-Gandhara region for its later rulers. Thus, on the conquest of Gandhara from the Greek invaders, Chandragupta Maurya fortified the region and kept a very tight vigil on the region. In fact, all great Indian rulers from Chandragupta Maurya and his grandson Ashoka to the later Gupta dynasty till the Mughals kept a wary eye on this important outpost which exposed the rest of India to invasions.

It has been recorded by Alexander's biographers that apart from gifting him a large number of animals as tribute, Ambhi also presented to Alexander 200 talents (talent was a Greek weight term of about 33 to 50 kg much like the Indian Maund 'Maan') of coined silver. Indians, later on, discovered the Greek style of die-struck coinage with beautiful images of the king and Greek deities. These coins inspired later Indian rulers to adopt both the technique and the idea of using images of Gods and Goddesses on coins.

Lastly, Alexander's invasion brought one important fact which can be only appreciated in hindsight; the lack of Indian awareness of world affairs and events outside its immediate sphere, which cost them very heavily as invasions from outside were rarely analysed and understood by Indian tacticians about their possible impact on the country.


Friday, 26 July 2019


The end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE finds Sparta a winner and Athens a loser to capitulate on unbearable terms. At that time, Greeks from the city-states began gradually to work as mercenaries. Thousands of Greek warriors, trained in combat operations and strategies, offered their services to kings, contenders of thrones and satraps of the Persian kingdom.

The machinations that took place in the Persian court provided opportunities for the Greek soldiers to be involved in revolutions to overthrow the power. The riches of the Great King constituted a powerful lure for the Greek soldiers, whose abilities in combat were recognized and admired particularly in the ancient world.

In "Anabasis", Xenophon records the course of the mercenary army of the Greeks step by step, consisting of soldiers coming from different city-states, from the coast of Asia Minor to the battle of Cunaxa on September 5, 401 BCE and their return from Cunaxa to Trabzon and from there to Pergamon. The Greek mercenaries fought for Cyrus the Younger, against his brother Artaxerxes, who was on the Persian throne.

The significance and role of the Anabasis of the Myriad was particularly important for antiquity, especially for Greece. Xenophon's work was known in the ancient world, and is a precursor of Alexander the Great's campaign half a century later. The Greek historian has provided important information on issues of military, administrative, psychological, moral, economic, cultural and geographic interest:

i. First of all, Xenophon accurately records the course of the army from one city to the other listing the different distances covered and the stops that took place.: He also describes in detail the geomorphology of the Persian mainland, through the reporting of rivers, lakes, deserts and mountains. Moreover, the administrative division of the state, their satrapies and borders, as well as the peoples living in each region, are thoroughly mentioned.

ii. In 'Anabasis', the areas beyond the Tigris and Euphrates rivers are described for the first time.These rivers will later be crossed by Alexander the Great. In addition, the capture of cities, villages and fortifications will help the Greeks to get to know and study the interior of the Persian empire.

iii. The claim of the royal throne by Cyrus and his controversy with Artaxerxes fully reflects what was happening within the Persian court. The successors of the throne clashed in order to claim the kingdom and riches of the empire. The satraps of the provinces were often involved in these controversies, always with the expectation of material and moral exchange. Several satraps rebelled against the Persian King claiming the independence of their province. The internal disputes of the Persian Empire were maintained during the campaign of Alexander the Great.

v. The satraps didn't keep a united front against the troops passing through their province to fight the Grand King. So, they either conspired with the invaders hoping that they would overthrow the King, or kept a neutral stance, trying not to create problems so that the Greek troops would quickly leave their area without looting it. Finally, there were occasions when satraps fought against the invaders, claiming the favour of the Persian King for the services they offered.

v. The Army of the Myriad suffered several hardships. Lack of food, fatigue, constant battles and, in general, disputes over the correctness of the choices of the Greek generals made the situation extremely difficult. The management of the Greeks on such crises and disagreements among soldiers, would become a model for the campaigns to be carried out in the future. The distance separating the soldiers from their homeland, combined with the anxiety of survival, would act as handicap for any attempt to move further into the Persian Empire. Similar problems would be presented to the Macedonian army with its continuous course to the Asian mainland during the campaign of Alexander the Great.

vi. There were significant differences between the battle tactics of the Greek and the Persian armies. The Persian army did not change its structure, relying primarily on its arithmetic superiority over the opponent and the forces of the cavalry and the archers. On the other hand, the Greeks relied on the courage, the bravery, the maneuvers and the discipline of the soldiers. The Persian army was unable to withstand a direct attack from the Greek soldiers- as a result, they retreated and scattered.

vii. Also, one of the usual tactics of the Persian army was to leave the battlefield when their leader was killed. This fact was also confirmed in Cunaxa, when, despite the victory of the Myriads, the death of Cyrus caused the Persian part of his army to flee for their lives. The victory of the Myriads became a defeat, the moment Cyrus died. This practice will later be exploited by Alexander the Great when, as the head of the Macedonian cavalry, he attacked the central part of the Persian army faction to kill King Darius.

viii. One century after their invasion to Greece, the Persians were not invincible-  despite the wealth they possessed and despite their more active involvement in Greek affairs through the financial support of rival cities-states. As was the case in the Persian Wars, they were defeated by the Greek mercenary army.

ix. It was the first time that the Greeks clashed with the Persians in a battle which took place in the mainland of the Persian empire, just 70 kilometers north of Babylon. Despite the adversity they faced and the lack of proper supplies, the Greek mercenaries were making a major victory. Now, the Great King was beaten within his empire.

x. Despite the hardships and difficult conditions that the Army of Myriads faced, they managed to return to Greece. When they began the journey into the interior of the Persian empire, the troops numbered about 13,000 hoplites from various city-states. About 8,600 of them returned home; that is,more than half of the original army survived, despite the constant battles and the heavy winter in the distant East.

xi. Finally, the achievement of the Greek mercenaries took place despite the campaign's objective difficulties. The heterogeneous character of the army and the fact that the hoplites came from various city-states of metropolitan Hellas, were secondary issues. The Myriad were mercenaries and the only motivation for their participation in Cyrus' effort to claim the throne of the Persian Empire, was money that would provide them with a better life. However, victory revealed the potential for a comprehensive and properly trained military campaign in the near future. This army would be placed under the orders of Alexander the Great.

In conclusion, the victory of the Myriad against the Persian army, their successful course and return from the interior of the Persian empire, and the adversities that they managed to overcome renewed the feeling of power and superiority of the Greeks towards the Persians. After their defeat at Plataea, the Persians did not try to campaign against the main Greek territory again- instead, they focused on their economic interference in the city-states of the Greek mainland and their controversies over the hegemony of Greece. Persian gold would be a cause of friction, with Greek cities scorning for the favor of the Great King. The Persian King will intervene internally and act as the regulator and referee of the issues. Persian involvement will continue throughout the 4th century BCE.

The "Anabasis" provided important information to the ancient world about the structure and composition of the Persian Empire. The descent of the Myriad managed to bring out the Persian weaknesses. 66 years later, when Alexander the Great would subjugate the Persian Empire, he would be confronted with much of what Xenophon has recorded in his book. The course of the mercenary army from the coasts of Asia Minor to the Mesopotamian region and its return through inaccessible paths, the constant battles with the peoples of the empire, the handling of disagreements within the army and the bad weather conditions they endured, inspired the ancient Greek world- putting an end to the legend of the great Persian King and his supposedly mighty army. The policy of Philip II and then Alexander the Great for a campaign of the Greeks for the subjugation of the Persians had a chance of success thanks to the achievement of the Myriad.

Edited from : Historical Quest  


Fondukistan is a Buddhist site in the Ghorband valley (Parvan province, Afghanistan), c. 120 km north-west of Kabul. It is located on the top of a hill overlooking the valley from the south, a bit north of the route that passed through the Hindu Kush, and connected India to Bactria and Central Asia in the past.

Although coins found at the site of Fondukistan had been recorded  since the first half of the 19th century, the first archaeological expedition there was conducted in 936, by Joseph Hackin of the Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan. A year later, Jean Carl (also a member of the Délégation) conducted limited excavations on the site. However limited,the archaeologists discovered stunning artifacts.The results were summarized in a short paper published by Hackin (1959).
 Only a small part of the structures have been excavated so far; a temple and an adjoining building connected to it by a vaulted passage. The latter structure, built of adobe, consists of numerous cells, congregation halls for the Buddhist community saṅgha, and other rooms. There have been do detailed publishings about the site.

The overall building plan of the square temple has not as yet been determined. Hackin assumed that it was a vaulted hall; according to others it was a domed structure (Rowland, 1961); a third opinion holds that it was an open courtyard (Tarzi). Judging by the photographs published by Hackin, the sides of the temple must have been ca. 8 to 10 meters long. Its walls—not very thick and with deep niches—were obviously not built to support the weight of a large dome. Most likely the temple was indeed an enormous courtyard, with a square stupa in the middle. The stupa had a two-tier foundation, with pilasters along each ledge. On the upper ledge, above the pilasters, there were trapezium-shaped arches, which framed another row of pilasters. The massive cylindrical drum was also decorated with small arches and pilasters.
In the walls of the temple there are 12 deep niches, 3 on each side, covered by elliptical vaults. The 5 gateway arches are supported by pilasters with corinthian-style capitals, and the archivolts of the gateway niches are trimmed with wide strips of carved-scroll ornamentation. The walls and the vaults of the niches are decorated with magnificent frescoes. In niche E there is an image of Maitreya Buddha seated cross-legged on a throne. His head is inclined over his right shoulder; in his right hand he is holding up a blue lotus flower and in his lowered left hand a Brahman water flask. The Boddhisattva is richly bejeweled, wearing a diadem, earrings, bracelets, etc. The frescoes in another niche depict the sun god and the moon god. Each niche was a shrine holding an ensemble of clay sculptures built up around a wooden lattice or armature. Some sculptures were depicted in full length, others as torsos. These figures of Buddhas, Boddhisattvas, devata, princes, princesses, etc. are true masterpieces of Buddhist art, striking images, remarkable for their vivid polychromy.
Both sculptures and frescoes exude warmth and breathing, depicting elegant little curvatures of the body and flower-like gestures of the hands, as if capturing for eternity the complex movements of a dance. The genesis of this art form can be traced back to the art of Gandhāra and the Guptas. 

The Fondukistan site is usually dated to the 7th century C.E. on the evidence of artistic style and numismatic finds, the oldest of which is from 689 C.E. However, the shape and the decorations of the stupa suggest that the complex can be dated even earlier, around 6th-7th century C.E.

EDITED FROM: Encyclopedia Iranica

Wednesday, 24 July 2019


The Mahavamsa refers to two visits by ‘Yona’(Greeks) to ancient Sri Lanka. Mahavamsa says that Pandukabhaya (pre- 3rd century BCE) set apart grounds near the west gate of Anuradhapura for the ‘Yona’. That is the first visit. Several centuries later, in the time of Dutugemunu (167-131 BCE) Yona bhikkus arrived to celebrate the completion of the Mahathupa.

 That is the second visit of the Yonas. Researchers have queried whether these Yonas were Greeks. Merlin Peris, Emeritus professor of Western Classics, University of Peradeniya, who researched into the two visits, is very definite that ‘Yona’ refers to Greeks and not any other group. The word ‘Yona’ is derived from ‘Ionian’, the Persian word for Greeks. ‘It was known before Pandukabhaya’s time. Dipawamsa refers to a famine of Yonaka in an earlier world cycle. India’s Sanskrit grammarian Panini (4th century BCE) spoke of the Yavana script.

The Mahavamsa Greeks (Yona) came from northwestern India. They may have got there in the time of the Persian king Cyrus, (559- 529 BCE) Darius (522–486 BCE) or Xerxes (486–465 BCE). But the most solid theory is that they went there with Alexander the Great of Macedon who invaded the Indus delta between 327-303 BCE. After his death, the Greeks stayed on. Seleucus Nicator, a general in Alexander’s army took over the lands conquered by Alexander. Merlin Peris observed that Pandukabhaya’s period of rule in Sri Lanka fitted in with the Alexander- Seleucid period in India. He suggests that Pandukabhaya’s city planning did not end after the first ten years, as Mahavamsa said. It continued and the Greek settlers came in the last two decades of his rule. The journey would have been easy. The sea route was well known and well used by then.

These Greek settlers were not second or third generation ‘Indo-Greeks’. They were first generation native Greeks, who had left Greece -including the parts of Macedonia and Ionia- only two decades before. They were, therefore, the first Europeans to visit Sri Lanka.
Merlin Peris observes that a foreign quarter in Anuradhapura so early on in Sri Lanka’s history shows that the Sinhala king was quick to respond to the Greek element in neighboring India. The Greeks were equally prompt in getting to Sri Lanka. The references to Sri Lanka in the writings of Onescritus, Megasthenes and Eratosthenes are dated to this time. Megasthenes who was in India as Greek ambassador to the Maurya court, would have had contact with the Greek settlers in Anuradhapura.

These Greeks would have brought a first- hand knowledge of Greek culture into Sri Lanka. A trace of this today is in the Greek myths that appear in the Mahavamsa. Merlin Peris says the Ummadacitta story is from the Greek myth of Danae, daughter of the king of Argos. The story of Vijaya is from Homer’s ‘Odyssey’. It also contains Argonautic myths. The Argonauts were a band of heroes in Greek mythology. Kelanitissa- Viharamaha Devi episode is taken from Danae and from the Andromeda story found in the legend of Perseus. The Mahavamsa story has been taken straight from the Greek one, not from any intermediate source. The flooding of Kelaniya and the marriage of Kelanitissa and Viharamaha Devi however are true. Subha saha Yasa story is found in Plato’s "Republic" and in the writings of Herodotus. It is also given in a papyrus dated to 2 CE, found In Egypt, which means the story may pre-date Herodotus. Merlin thinks the Mahavamsa writer may have known of the two Greek epics "Odyssey" and "Iliad". He further observes that the only history the Sinhala historians could have obtained during this period was that of Herodotus. India had no model history. They also seem to have heard of the Greek historian Xenophon( 430 – 354 BCE). William Knighton in his "History of Ceylon" (1845) observed that the manner in which king Kavantissa collected his army closely resembled the account given by Xenophon in his "Cyropaedia" of the way in which King Cyrus of Persia gathered up his army.

The second recorded visit of the Greeks took place when Yona bhikkus arrived from Alasanda to celebrate the completion of the Mahathupa by Dutugemunu (167-131 BCE). Merlin Peris says Alasanda was probably in Kabul valley. Kabul was under Greek rule at the time and, according to Mahavamsa, was devoutly Buddhist. It had ‘shone with yellow robes.’ Merlin Peris asserts that it is from the Kabul valley, not southeast India, that that the Greeks came to Anuradhapura. The Mahavamsa and the Mahavamsa tika do not explain who these Yona were. Both works assume that the reader already knows who the Yona were. This means that the Sinhalese would have been familiar with the Greeks even before they arrived for the chaitya ceremony. Perhaps there was a pocket of Greeks remaining in Anuradhapura.

Merlin Peris says that the considerable ‘Greek presence’ in India at the time of Dutugemunu ‘makes plausible their coming to Sri Lanka.’ King Dharmasoka had a large Greek population in his Empire. Two Asokan edicts in Greek were found in Kandahar. One was a Greek version of the XII and XIII rock edicts. It spoke of Asoka’s missions to various Greek ruled kingdoms, and mentions the Yonas and the people of Aparanta. These are the only Asokan edicts in a non-Indian language. They show that Buddhism had been preached in the Greek language, in India and abroad and that the Greek population in Kandahar outnumbered the Indians.

The Third Buddhist Council took place in India during Dharmasoka’s reign. When it ended, Venerable Moggaliputta sent out two missions directed at Greeks. One mission went to Yonarattha, ‘the country of the Yona’. The other mission, sent to Aparantaka, was led by ‘Dhamarakkita the Yona’. These Moggaliputta and Asoka missions would have been headed by Greeks or Greek- speaking monks and they would have preached in Greek. Merlin Peris suggests that the Greeks may have been the first Europeans to convert to Buddhism in India and that Greek may have been the first foreign language in which Buddhism was preached.



There are many elements of ancient world history that are unknown to most of us, because information has been lost or has been intentionally hidden from us. According to some historians, less than 5% of all ancient Greek writings survives and is available to us. We can assume that there are sides of the ancient Greek civilization that we are not aware of.

Professor Nors S. Josephon, provides us with an 8- year long linguistic study which proves the connection between ancient Greeks and a number of Polynesian civilizations. Josephson traveled to Polynesia and gathered many dictionaries and word lists of Polynesian languages, as he was curious to discover why local languages include words of non-Polynesian origin.

According to Josephson, the Greeks who colonized  eastern Polynesia, probably originated from what is modern Peru and Bolivia, as the culture of Easter Islands has had numerous similarities to those areas during the pre-Incan era. These Greek-speaking inhabitants were speaking ancient Greek, and also brought an ancient Greek culture, which is reminiscent of Cyprus and the Cyclades islands, including Naxos and Melos over the same period.

In his book “Greek Lingustics in the Polynesian Languages (Hellenicum Pacificum)” the professor provides solid proof of a connection between ancient Greeks and Polynesian civilizations. Josephson studied a number of Polynesian languages and was able to find concordances with Greek in the following languages (listed in descending order from “highest” to “lowest” total of concordances):

El: Easter Island
Ma: Maori
Mo: Moriori
Hw: Hawaii
Tu: Tuamotus
Rp: Rapa Iti
Th: Tahiti
Ra: Rarotonga
Mg: Mangaia
Mv: Mangareva
Mq: Marquesas
Sa: Samoa
To: Tonga

Some Greek words and their Polynesian derivatives and meanings from Josephson’s study:

ΑΕΤΟΣ (pronounced aetos; meaning=eagle)

Th: aeto; eagle
Rt: aeto; vulture
Sa: áeto, eagle

ΑΠΟ (pronounced apó; meaning= from, (of time) from, after, from (this point) onwards, beyond (the time))

El: apó; tomorrow
Ma: apopo; tomorrow, at some future time
Mo: apo; tomorrow
Hw: ápopo; tomorrow
Th: apopo; tomorrow
Ra: apopo; tomorrow
Mv: aponei; this evening
apopo; tomorrow
Mq: apopo; later, afterwards
To: abo; tonight

ΑΡΟΤΡΙΑΩ (pronounced arotriáo; meaning= to plough)
ΑΡΟΤΗΡ (pronounced arotír; meaning= plougher)

El: aróte; to plough
Th: árote; to plough
Ra: arote, to plough, cultivate, turn over the soil
Mv: aratoro, a plough

ΓΕΝΝΑΩ (pronounced ghenáo; meaning= to bring forth and give birth, bear)

El: hanáu, to be born, give birth
henúa; placenta
Ma: whánau; to be born
whenua; placenta
Hw: hánau; to give birh
Tu: hánau; to bear; give birth to
henúa; female body, placenta
Th: fanau; to be born
Ra: anau; to bear, give birth to, beget
Mv: hanáu; to be born
Mq: hanau; to be born
Sa: fánau; to be born
To: fanau; to have a child

ΔΕΚΑ (pronounced theka; meaning= ten)

Ma: tekau, ten
Tu: tekau, ten pairs
Th: ta au, twenty, ten pairs
Ra: takau; twenty
Mv: takau, ten
Mq: tekau, twenty
To: tekau, number, score, twenty

ΔΟΚΟΣ (pronounced thokos; meaning= bearing, beam, main-beam, any balk or beam, firewood)

El: toko-toko, stick, cane
Ma: toko, pole, rod, stilt
toko-toko, staff, door post
Mo: totoko, staff
Hw: koo, a prop, brace for holding anything up
Tu: toko, a prop, pole, staff, branch
Th: to’o, perch, pole used to manoeuvre a canoe
Ra: toko, pole or rake used for propelling
Mv: toko, pole of a raft, tressel, stilts
Mq: toko, prop, platform
Sa: to’o, punting pole, house post, a stand supporting the perch of a pigeon
To: toko, pole, long rod used for pushing canoes through the water

These few linguistic similarities and hundreds more cannot be a coincidence. Ancient Greeks had the technology to travel to faraway places. We have records and proof that they travelled to North and South America, India and China, Africa and the North of Europe (including Scandinavia). There is nothing that could have stopped the Greeks from taking a step further, in order to develop trade and cultural relationships with indigenous populations and colonise and migrate  Polynesia.

This is exciting information. Why are these elements of world history demonstrating the common origins of civilizations not common knowledge and taught at schools around the world?


Tuesday, 23 July 2019


Hestia is one of the most remarkable and respected figures of the Hellenic Pantheon.A merciful and noble Goddess, She expresses the Sacred Center of all things. Being kind and just, She protects the home and the family.
Hestia is a daughter of Cronos and Rhea, and sister of Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Poseidon, and Hades.From the moment Zeus began fighting to establish His power, She helped him immensely to defeat the Giants. After that, Hestia never participated in wars and conflicts again.Zeus, grateful for Hestia's help, gave Her the unique privilege of obtaining anything She wants, without the need of His approval or intervention. In addition, He granted Her the right to be honoured in all the temples of the Gods, without exception. The fire altar in all temples was dedicated to Her first, and all Greeks offered to Hestia the first and final sacrifice in every festive event. The most important vows were given in Hestia's name.

Shy and modest, Hestia is always an introvert in Her contacts with the other Gods. She keeps away from marriage, although many worthy Gods approached her, like Poseidon and Apollo. Hestia took a sacred vow of virginity by placing Her hand on the head of Zeus- and She keeps to Her oath, focusing only on protecting the homes and families of mortals.
Unlike the other Gods of Olympus, Hestia never leaves the Sacred Mountain.  However, despite Her external immobility, her inner world is alive and dynamic- therefore, Hestia is the archetype of self-concentration. Her character traits, such as silence,modesty and concentration, represent values that open the way to the hidden dimensions of the soul.

Hestia is the creator of home architecture, and guards the unity of the family itself. Ancient Greeks always dedicated to Her the main part of the house- the hearth, where the fire burned and all family members gathered around it.That is the reason why Hestia always received the first offering in domestic rituals.

Hestia's Sacred Fire
Hestia's presence is expressed through the life-giving element of Fire. At home, it brings people together around the hearth- and good family relationships are encouraged. Creativity, communication and hope for the future are promoted as the family gathers. They form a circle, which becomes sacred through Hestia's Fire.Ancient Greeks considered this fire as an entity which carries the will and protection of the Goddess- it assists and blesses the domestic works of people.
However, Hestia's power is not restricted within the narrow context of the house. Her Fire Altars existed in every settlement and city. They were the 'Sacred Homes' and Fire was kept always burning, through the care of the virgin Priestesses of Hestia. Disaster awaited the cities which let the Sacred Fire go out.

The colour of  Hestia is white and her other symbols are the veil and the burning circle, which symbolizes the consciousness of the Self, completion and eternity.
Hestia had no image for a long time- Fire was Her natural depiction.Even in later times, Her statues were few. She is usually seen holding a clavicle and a scepter or torch in one hand,and a spear in the other.Around Hestia, there are two poles supporting lanterns.In Olympia, Hestia was portrayed between Hermes and Eros, and on the podium of the statue of Zeus.

Monday, 22 July 2019


Tyche is the Goddess of fortune, chance, providence and fate .
​In the earliest sources, and as written down by Hesiod, Tyche is named as an Oceanid, one of the 3,000 daughters of Oceanus and Tethys. 

As a Bringer of fortune to man, Tyche is closely associated with the Moirai, the three Goddesses who plot out the lives of men from birth to death. 
​Tyche is found in the company of Nemesis, the Greek Goddess of Retribution. These two together ensure that there is balance in the cosmos and within individual people as well. 

A name given to Tyche is 'Eutychia', when the fortune given by the Goddess is good. 
 She is one of the companions of Persephone, and used to spend time in nature with the daughter of Demeter. Persephone was abducted by Hades as She picked flowers, although we can easily assume that Tyche was not present with Persephone on that day- the attendants who were present and couldn't help Persephone, were turned into the Sirens by grief-stricken  Demeter. ​

​Tyche also appears in Aesop’s Fables, where Aesop showed that mortals are slow to give praise for good fortune, but are quick to blame Tyche when bad fortune comes their way. 

There is also an Aesop fable titled 'Tyche and the Two Roads', which is also named 'Prometheus and the Two Roads', for Tyche and Prometheus are used interchangeably. 
Zeus requires Tyche to show man two roads, one which leads to freedom and one which leads to slavery. The road to freedom starts off rough, and is difficult to traverse, but after overcoming many obstacles, becomes an easy and pleasant road. The road to slavery though, begins pleasantly enough, but it soon changes to a road which is impassable. 

EDITED FROM: Greek Legends and Myths


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